Achondroplasia: A Form of Dwarfism

Acondroplasia is a rare genetic disorder characterized by short stature.

Acondroplasia features include disproportionate stature. This basically means that the arms and legs are relatively small when compared to the torso (body). The size disadvantage acondroplasia patients have is more observable in the upper legs and arms (proximal).

Additional signs include a prominent forehead (frontal bone), a prominent jaw, and a flat or depressed region between the eyes. On occasion, there is overcrowding of teeth, and the upper and lower dentition have bad alignment. The disease occurs in all races with equal incidence in women and men. Achondroplasia attacks one in 25,000 to one in 40,000 people.

The lower extremities of a patient with achondroplasia almost always turns bowed, and occasionally the elbow joint can’t be straightened out completely. The arms are short and stumpy and the feet can be small, flat and wide.

Causes of Achondroplasia

A chemical modification within a single gene results in achondroplasia. It does not arise from anything the parents have practiced during or prior to childbirth. Achondroplasia starts from an autosomal dominate condition. What this means is a new chromosomal mutation or genetic alteration began to take place at the time of conception.

The disease may also be communicated from one generation to the next; 9 out of 10 babies born with this illness have average-sized mothers and fathers. If one adult has the disease, there is a fifty percent probability their baby will inherit a copy of the gene. If the mother and father both have the disease there is a twenty-five percent chance the baby will have a dominant gene factor and a seventy-five percent possibility of a single achondroplasia gene. This gene is referred to as FGFR3 (fibroblast growth factor).

Other Illnesses Related to Achondroplasia

Babies with this disease have an inclination towards middle-ear infections. This may occur until 5 or 6 years of life, and it may be owing to abnormal draining from the “pipe” that leads from the middle part of the ear to the throat (pharynx). Respiratory troubles can happen in babies and children, due to constricted nasal openings.

An individual with achondroplasia will have the same life expectancy as an individual without the disease. Hydrocephalus (water in the central nervous system) can also occur in certain instances of achondroplasia.

Kids with achondroplasia may successfully reach motor milestones of growth, but differently and more gradually than youngsters without the disease. For example the baby with achondroplasia might take much longer to sit up than a baby who does not have the disease – but there could always be exceptions.

Pediculosis Explained: Having Critters in Your Hair

If you have children, you probably know that from time to time something occurs that is an all out and complete nightmare. Among these things is head lice or pediculosis.

Kids tend to be the most prone to acquiring pediculosis, particularly when they are still attending elementary school.

The most obvious culprit? Other children! You may observe that grownups very rarely ever contract pediculosis, but kids frequently do. As a matter of fact, it’s probably rare that you know one adult individual that did not get pediculosis as a child or has a kid who has already experienced something of this nature.

The Dangers of Pediculosis

Head pediculosis isn’t life-threatening and they do not spread diseases, but they’re contractible and can be quite bothersome for your youngster. Their stings may cause a youngster’s scalp to turn nail-bitingly excruciating and reddened, and long-term itching may lead to skin irritation and possibly infection!

The majority of parents realize what it’s like to have to experience something with your child and not be capable of dealing with it so when it comes to pediculosis capitis or body pediculosis you might not even find out your kid has it till you genuinely pay attention to a few key signs and symptoms.

There are a few things you can be watching out for in order to ascertain if your child has Pediculosis

Pediculosis eggs (also known as nits) seem like tiny brown, purplish, or yellow dots prior to them hatching. After hatching, the leftover shell looks light yellow or white. Pediculosis is when nits are deposited on hair follicles located at the skin’s surface, where the heat is ideal for keeping the eggs warm until they hatch.

Nits look much like dandruff, but they cannot be terminated by shaking or brushing them off. Unless the problem is utterly serious, it is more commonplace to see nits in a kid’s hair than it is to observe live pediculosis crawling on the scalp. The eggs hatch approximately 7 to 14 days after they are deposited.

Itching and Pediculosis

Scratching is a natural response to itching, but if your youngster is continuously scratching his scalp, it’s a good idea to have a look and see if you are able to notice anything! In addition, if they notify you about “little things” running around and tickling their foreheads this is a very dependable “sign” that they may be carrying pediculosis!

It is recommended that if your child does notify you of scratching or “tickling” you can take a fine-toothed comb and “sweep” his hair from side to side, look at his hair follicles and scalp. If you do discover something, it’s crucial that you call a physician who can recommend a effective shampoo or conditioner for your kid to eliminate the pediculosis. This is unquestionably not something you would like to delay!

These might be nonprescription or prescription drugs, contingent on what treatments have already been administered. Medicated pediculosis treatments normally wipe out the pediculosis and nits, but it could take a few weeks for the itching to cease.

Many people say that pediculosis is like varicella: once they contract it, they will most likely never get it again. This just isn’t the case regrettably!

Be on the lookout for pediculosis on your children and once you do come across its signs, be sure they see a physician right away. No one should accept this for a longer length of time than necessary.

The Symptoms and Treatment of Valley Fever: A Serious Fungal Infection with Common Symptoms

Valley Fever often goes undiagnosed because of the common cold symptoms it produces. If left untreated death can occur.

In the dry deserts of the world an often undiagnosed medical condition spreads through the wind infecting a wide range of unsuspecting people. This disease that can travel with the wind is called Valley Fever. This disease is caused by a fungus that lives in the soil. This fungus can thrive in warm, dry environments like the deserts of Mexico and Arizona. The fungal infection is spread into the air when the soil is disturbed like in a dust storm. Because of this, people with digging jobs and contractors are often diagnosed with this condition. Once the fungus is in the air it is inhaled into the lungs resulting in Valley Fever.

The Risks

Although Valley Fever can affect anyone, many factors can increase a person’s risk for becoming infected with this disease. People with weak immune systems are likely to be infected, especially those that suffer from HIV/AIDS. Pregnant women and diabetics have an increased risk to Valley Fever.

Ethnicity has shown to increase a person’s risk for Valley Fever. Native Americans, Mexican Americans, and African Americans have shown to have a higher chance of getting Valley Fever than others. Filipinos are also known to frequently have this infection.

Environmental factors can increase a person’s risk for Valley Fever as well. The hot deserts, like those in the Southwestern United States, have high reports of this infection. Windy environments can increase a person’s risk. Construction workers, farmers, and other outside labor jobs increase the risk of contracting this disease.

The Symptoms

Valley Fever often goes undiagnosed because the symptoms associated with it are so common to colds and flu. Although Valley Fever has cold-like symptoms it is not contagious from person to person. Symptoms usually occur after the incubation period which lasts about one to three weeks. The symptoms of this disease are fevers, dry coughs, and chest pains. A person with this disease can also experience joint pain, fatigue, and headaches. Rarely, a rash or red bumps will be visible on the body. Because these symptoms are so similar to other illnesses Valley Fever often goes undiagnosed and untreated. It is then able to spread to other areas of the body.

Treatment

If Valley Fever is left untreated it can begin to infect other areas of the body. It can spread to the lymph nodes, other organs, bones, and skin. If it is left untreated for a prolonged period of time, the coverings of the brain and spinal cord can become infected.

Valley Fever can easily be diagnosed by a doctor. The doctor will ask a series of questions involving recent travel, environment conditions, and work history. Chest x-rays are used to diagnose this condition as well as blood tests. Anti-fungal medications are used to kill the infection. Frequent check ups and testing are needed to check to make sure the infection doesn’t reoccur.

What Are the Causes of Diabetes?: The Main Causes and Symptoms of Three Types of Diabetes

Diabetes is a condition that appears to be increasing each year. Its main characteristic is an inability to process sugars in the body, leading to high blood sugar levels and illness. Despite the growing number of people who have this condition, not everyone is aware of the causes of diabetes.

Type 1 Diabetes

There are three types of diabetes. The first is called simple type 1 diabetes. It can also be called “juvenile diabetes” and “insulin-dependent diabetes.” This is the least common type of diabetes, usually striking during childhood. Considered an autoimmune disease, type 1 diabetes is caused by the body attacking the cells of the pancreas. This organ produces the hormone insulin, which is needed to break down sugars in the blood. As the amount of insulin decreases, sugar levels increase can cause serious damage.

Type 2 Diabetes

The most common type of diabetes today is type 2 diabetes. This condition occurs when external factors cause the pancreas to create less insulin, or the body becomes resistant to it’s effects. This condition can strike at any time and is most often linked to obesity and a poor diet. Though type 1 diabetes is incurable, for some losing weight and changing their diet can stop and reverse type 2 diabetes.

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational diabetes strikes women during pregnancy and generally ends as soon as they give birth. Women who face gestational diabetes, however, are at higher risks for type 2 diabetes later in life. For some women, pregnancy hormones can cause a temporary decrease in insulin product or change how the body uses insulin. Blood sugar levels will increase if not treated, causing complications with fetal development and birth.

Symptoms of Diabetes

People who are suffering from diabetes all face similar symptoms to varying degrees. Understanding what the symptoms are can make early diagnosis easier to that treatment can be had sooner. With early treatment, diabetics can reduce the among of damage their bodies suffer.

Increased hunger and thirst, frequent urination, and unexplained weight loss are the most common early signs of diabetes. Fatigue, headaches, and blurred vision are also symptoms of diabetes that many sufferers face. Rarely for some, a loss of consciousness can indicate undiagnosed diabetes.

The causes of diabetes can range from genetic traits passed down to outside factors, such as diet and lifestyle. Understanding the causes can help people make smarter choices to prevent potential diabetes in their lives.

About Amlodipine: The Action, Side Effects, Adverse Effects Of Amlodipine or Norvasc

Amlodipine is classified as an antihypertensive drug and more specifically a calcium channel blocker. It is used to treat hypertension and chest pain also known as angina. They are used to manage irregular heart beats or arrhythmias as well. Other medications in this class include the following:

  • diltiazem
  • verapamil
  • felodipine
  • nifedipine
  • isradipine

How Amlodipine Works

Calcium is needed by the body for muscle contraction. The heart is a muscle that is constantly contracting to pump blood through out the body. Calcium channel blockers like amlodipine work by blocking the flow of calcium into the muscles of the heart and smooth muscles of blood vessels. The blood vessels relax and become wider plus the pumping action of the heart is reduced. The effect of this is an increase in blood supply to the heart, leading to reduced chest pain, a decrease in how fast the heart pumps and a decrease in blood pressure.

Side effects of Amlodipine

Besides the therapeutic effect of this medication, there are other side effects that may occur and they are:

  • dizziness
  • sleeping problems
  • drowsiness
  • tiredness
  • swelling of the hands and legs
  • headaches
  • dry mouth
  • nausea, vomiting, heartburn
  • constipation, diarrhea
  • stomach cramps
  • gum enlargement
  • flushing

Serious side effects that need to be reported to a doctor immediately are adverse effects. These type of side effects for amlodipine are:

  • chest pain that occurs more frequently
  • irregular heart beats
  • slow heart beats
  • severe dizziness

Before Taking Amlodipine

It’s important to what medications to avoid when takin amlodipine and some are as follows:

  • Be aware that it can lower blood pressure if taken with other antihypertensives, fentanyl, nitrates, quinidine or alcohol.
  • Know that its antihypertensive effects may be reduced by medications like ibuprofen.
  • Consider the fact that it reacts with lithium to cause toxicity in the nervous system.

Precautions

Doing the following may increase the effectiveness of amlodipine and help prevent some side effects.

  • Learn how to check pulses and blood pressure. Take blood pressure reading weekly and report any unusual values to a healthcare provider.
  • Take the medication as prescribed even well feeling well.
  • Get up from a sitting or standing position slowly to prevent falls due to dizziness.
  • Do not drive or do anything that requires alertness until the drug effects are determined because the medication may cause drowsiness.
  • Maintain good dental hygiene and keep all dental appointments to reduce the occurrence of gum enlargement.
  • Consult a health care provider before using any over the counter medication like ibuprofen.
  • Report severe headaches, bothersome side effects and adverse effects to a physician immediately.

Its important to take amlodipine as prescribed and to discuss all other medication being taken with a physician before starting on this medication.

Causes of Renal Failure: Degenerative Conditions Invoke Compromise to Kidneys

Renal failure can be caused by a number of prominent and degenerative precursors, stressors, and diseases.

Renal failure, a physically and biochemically degenerative condition in itself, can be caused by an array of other life-threatening complications and conditions. Its onset may occur suddenly, as typical of acute renal failure or regressively over a period of time (months or years), as customary with chronic renal failure.

Catalysts which bear the potential to trigger a downward spiral in kidney function have been disclosed here (briefly), yet this outline is not all-inclusive.

Severe Dehydration Causes Kidneys Stress

Severe dehydration may be due to poor fluid intake; excessive diarrhea, fever, sweating, and vomiting. Some medications (like diuretics), may also induce excessive fluid loss and thereby invoke undue stress on the kidneys.

Chronic Diabetes is a Major Cause of Renal Failure

Chronic diabetes mellitus, otherwise known as “sugar diabetes” is due to long-term unregulated blood glucose levels. It includes:

  1. Type 1 diabetes
  2. Type 2 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which the pancreas’ insulin production is inadequate for the body.

In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas produces adequate insulin for the body but the body is unable to process it.

Acute and Chronic Glomerulonephritis

Glomerulonephritis is a type of kidney disease which results in the occurrence of blood and protein in the urine and a decrease in urine output. This is a disease of the glomeruli capillaries in which they become damaged or inflamed, thus interfering with the kidney’s natural ability to filter and remove excess waste and fluid from the body. A compromised immune system as well as other diseases and unknown causes can give rise to glomerulonephritis. Glomerulonephritis may be detected by urinalysis and confirmed through renal biopsy.

Chronic Hypertension is a Major Cause of Renal Failure

Hypertension (a.k.a. high blood pressure) is a condition in which a person’s systolic pressure and diastolic pressure are above 140 mmHg and 90 mmHg respectively, for prolong periods of time.

Renal Failure From Hypovolemia

Hypovolemia is a condition of low blood volume within the body. It may develop because of severe blood loss (resulting from a tragic accident or injury, etc.) and can bring about a lack of blood supply to the kidneys.

Kidney and Bladder Stones Can Block Urine Flow

Kidney stones and bladder stones are comprised of mineral deposits which precipitate out of urine and form stones. These stones may block and hinder the flow of urine within the urinary tract and could potentially result in obstructive uropathy or reflux nephropathy.

Medications and Renal Failure

Some medications though helpful for other areas of the body, may stress the kidneys causing them harm and toxicosis.

  • Diuretics
  • Regular use of analgesics (aspirin, acetaminophen)
  • Lithium

Multiple Myeloma Incites Renal Failure

Multiple myeloma causes the kidneys to be more susceptible to infection and disease. This condition is often referred to by several other names, such as: cancer of blood plasma cells, cancer of white blood cells, cancer of the immune system or cancer of bone marrow.

Obstructive Uropathy Damages Kidneys

Obstructive uropathy is an obstruction of urine flow from the ureters or the bladder, resulting in damage to the kidneys. This condition may be caused by enlarged prostate (in men), bladder cystocele, tumors and a host of other disorders and chronic diseases found in both men and women.

Defects From Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD)

Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a chromosomal (non-sex type) disease caused by several dominant and recessive genetic defects. PKD is responsible for a variety of kidney defects and deformities.

Prostate Disease May Precede Renal Failure

Prostate disease impedes the healthy production of semen (semi-produced) by the prostate gland found in men. This disease may also lead to renal failure.

Reflux Nephropathy Scars Kidneys

Reflux nephropathy is the unnatural, backward flow of urine into the kidneys. This condition may occur as a result of obstructive uropathy and can cause scarring or other damage to the kidneys.

Renal Toxicity From Rhabdomyolysis

In rhabdomyolysis (a hefty breakdown of muscle tissue), myoglobin (which happens to be toxic to kidneys) is released from the muscle cells as they break down. Rhabdomyolysis may stem from a number of biological, chemical or physical impairments and complications.

Sepsis is a Renal Detriment

Sepsis (a.k.a. blood poisoning) is an infection of the blood stream or other tissues in the body. It is caused by an unhealthy accumulation of pathogens or other toxins in the body. This condition is an absolute detriment to the kidneys.

It’s apparent that the catalysts which trigger renal failure are abundant and can occur simultaneously or even be intertwined. Diabetes and high blood pressure have become infamous for being the leading, known causes of reduced kidney function and ultimately, renal failure. It is important however, to remain conscious of the other varied agents which have harmful and toxicological effects on the kidneys.

Disclaimer

This article is intended for informational purposes only. It does not take the place of a doctor’s advice. Before making decisions regarding your health, seek the consultation of a well-trained, medical professional.

Treatment and Symptoms of Gestational Diabetes: Managing and Controlling Diabetes During Pregnancy

Symptoms, complications and risk factors associated with gestational diabetes. Treatment involves a carefully controlled diet and regular exercise.

Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that occurs in pregnant women. Unlike type I and type II diabetes, gestational diabetes goes away once the baby is born. However, in some women, blood glucose levels remains high even after giving birth and they develop type II diabetes.

Insulin Resistance and Gestational Diabetes

The digestive system in the human bodies breaks down food into glucose. The cells in turn consume glucose to produce energy. A hormone called insulin helps in moving the glucose from the intestine into the cells through blood.

In pregnant women, hormones from the placenta interfere with the action of insulin. This is called insulin resistance. In most women, the pancreas produces enough insulin to overcome the insulin resistance. In some pregnant women, the production of insulin is not adequate to overcome insulin resistance and this leads to gestational diabetes.

Symptoms of Gestational Diabetes

According to the American Diabetes Association, about 4% of all pregnant women are affected with GD. Though most women do not show any symptoms, some women may show excessive weight gain or may experience excessive hunger or thirst or excessive urination.

Risk Factors

Some women are more at risk for developing diabetes during pregnancy. Some of the risk factors are:

  • obesity or overweight
  • diabetes during a previous pregnancy
  • family history of diabetes
  • age over 30
  • race- African Americans, Asians, Latinos and Native Americans are more likely to develop gestational diabetes than Caucasians.
  • having previously given birth to a large child
  • having given birth to a baby who died at birth or shortly after birth

Treatment of Gestational Diabetes

Since the diabetes goes away once the baby is born, treatment for gestational diabetes aims to keep the blood glucose levels at normal levels. This is achieved by following a diet plan (provided by a doctor or registered dietitian), regular exercise, careful monitoring of blood glucose levels and in some cases through medication.

Complications of Gestational Diabetes

When the diabetes is poorly controlled, the high blood sugar levels in the mother’s blood can pass through the placenta into the baby and this causes the baby to grow very large. A very large baby can cause problems at birth and some women may need a C-section.

During pregnancy, the baby’s body makes more insulin to control the high glucose levels. If the pregnant woman has high glucose levels in the blood just before giving birth, the baby’s body compensates by making extra insulin. After birth, this extra insulin can cause the baby’s glucose levels to drop too low, causing hypoglycemia.

Babies of diabetic mothers are slightly more at risk for stillbirth. Jaundice and respiratory difficulties are some other problems found in babies of women affected with gestational diabetes.